Jonathan Foote, Shingo Uchihashi (email@example.com)
We introduce the beat spectrum, a new method of automatically characterizing the rhythm and tempo of music and audio. The beat spectrum is a measure of acoustic self-similarity as a function of time lag. Highly structured or repetitive music will have strong beat spectrum peaks at the repetition times. This reveals both tempo and the relative strength of particular beats, and therefore can distinguish between different kinds of rhythms at the same tempo. We also introduce the beat spectrogram which graphically illustrates rhythm variation over time. Unlike previous approaches to tempo analysis, the beat spectrum does not depend on particular attributes such as energy or frequency, and thus will work for any music or audio in any genre. We present tempo estimation results for a variety of musical genres, which are accurate to within 1%. This approach has a variety of applications, including music retrieval by similarity and automatically generating music videos.
in Proc. 2001 International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2001), Tokyo.
(HTML version, including sound examples) (PDF, 407 kb)